The History of Marketing
Until very recently, marketing consisted almost entirely of "outbound marketing". That is, marketing that interrupts the consumer, talking at them, instead of with them.
The period up until around the dot-com bubble consisted of marketing mediums that supported outbound-type marketing.
- 1450 ~ 1900. Printed advertising appears. In 1450 Gutenberg invents making mass printing possible for the first time.
- 1730s. Magazines first emerge as a medium.
- 1741. First American magazine - published in 1641 in Philadelphia.
- 1839. Become so popular they have to be banned on property in London.
- 1867. Billboards. Earliest recorded billboard rentals.
- 1920 ~ 1949. The emergence of new mediums.
- 1922. Radio advertising begins. In 1933, the percentage of U.S. homes with radio passes the halfway mark. (55.2%, up from essentially 0% in 1921)
- 1941. TV. First recorded use of television advertising. The first commercial for Bulova clocks reaches 4.000 TV sets.
- 1946. Telephones. Telephone household penetration passes the 50% mark.
- 1950 ~ 1972. Marketing grows up. During this era, more mediums mean more opportunities for marketing.
- 1954. Television ads. TV and revenue surpasses magazine and radio ad sales. Radio ad revenue drops 9% after the prior year's dip of 2%. TV revenues grow from 5% of total ad spending in 1953 to 15% in 1954.
- 1970.Telemarketing. Telemarketing emerges as a common tactic.
- 1972. Magazines. For the first time, print media feels the monetary pinch of outbound marketing. Time Inc. shuts down Life magazine after 36 years. It cites competition from television and the prospect of postal rate increases as factors in its demise.
- 1973 ~ 1994. During this era, new emerging technologies continue to change the marketing landscape, enabling new forms of marketing to gain strength and mature.
- 1973. Mobile. April 3, 1973. Motorola researches Dr.Martin Cooper makes the first handheld mobile phone call. (Hello?)
- 1981-1984. Computers. IBM corp. introduces the IBM personal computer. Three years later, in 1984, Apple launches its mega-successful Macintosh with an epic Super Bowl commercial directed by Ridley Scott. The ad cost $900.000 to make. Ad reach: 46.4% of American households.
- 1985. Print advertising is made even easier with the emergence of desktop publishing and the personal computer, leading to an explosion in print advertising.
- 1990-1994. Mobile. 2G mobile network advancements precede an explosion in the rise of cell phone usage, paving the way for future advancements like SMS messaging, which arrives in 1992.
- 1990-1998. TV displaces newspapers as the nation's largest ad medium. Total advertising revenues on cable television grew from $2.4 billion to an estimated $8.3 billion.
- Internet & email. Spam. In April 1994, Phoenix law firm Canter and Siegel advertises their services by posting a message on several thousand newsgroups. This is likely the first automated, large-scale commercial example of spam. It is also the incident that makes the term popular.
- 1995 ~ 2002. The bubble. During this period, new technologies continue to emerge and become adopted by wide audiences. Mobile phones gain popularity, and the Internet becomes a viable tool for commerce, opening the doors for an explosion in marketing.
- 1995-1997. Search marketing. Search engines launch in 1995, followed shortly after by Ask.com in 1997. These services help users find the information, products, and services they desire. Number of people using the web and searching: December 1995 - 16 million (0.4% of population), December 1997 - 70 million (1.7% of population).
- 1995-1997.SEO. The first recorded use of the term "Search Engine Optimization" was at a multimedia marketing group by John Audettes. At this time, search algorithms rely on webmaster-provided information like meta data, keyword density, and other on-page factors.
- 1998. Search evolves. Google & MSN launch new search engines. Google introduces PageRank, which is the metric Google uses to determine how websites should rank. It is a function of the quality and strength of inbound links. This, along with o-page factors, is used to determine the results that are delivered. PPC/Adwords starts (2000), Google Analytics arrives (2005). Today, Google Analytics is used by 49.1% of all websites, which is a traffic analysis tool market share of 80.8%.
- 1998. Blogging emerges. Brad Fitzpatrick starts LiveJournal in march 1999. Evan Williams and Meg Hourihan launch Blogger.com in August 1999, later purchased by Google in 2003.
- 1999. Only a handful of blogs exist. By mid-2006: 50 million blog exist.
- 2000. The bubble pops. Tech-related growth is reflected in a 500% increase in the NASDAQ index, considered an indicator of the performance of technology companies. The dot-com bubble burst on March, 10.2000, when the NASDAQ Composite index peaked at 5.048.62.
- The age of inbound marketing. After the dot-com bubble burst, the Internet begins to enter a new age, characterized by a grated emphasis on information sharing, user-centered design, and collaboration. This new trend leads to consumers engaging with brands in new ways. Instead of simply pushing advertising at consumers online, the benefits of creating value for consumers and earning their business begins to take hold.
- 2003. Fighting spam. Email users win big against spammers when the can-spam act is signed into law by George W.Bush and establishes the U.S.'s first national standards against sending unsolicited commercial email. The acronym: Controlling the Assault of Non-solicited Pomography and Marketing Act.
- 2003-2004. LinkedIn, MySpace, Facebook are founded. Social media begins Facebook, launched in 2004. Telemarketing. Consumers become even more disillusioned with invasive outbound marketing tactics and see the National Do Not Call Registry implemented. Today, there are more than 200 million Americans on the Do Not Call List. Email marketing. Feb. 16, 2004, 18-year-ol Anthony Greco is the first person to be arrested under the Can-Spam act. He pleads guilty.
- 2005. SEO.Google begins personalized search results that are informed by your past search history. Analytics. Google-branded version of Analytics launches in November. The demand for it is so high that new signups are suspended after just one week. It becomes fully available in August 2006.
- 2006.HubSpot launches.Social media. Twitter launches. E-commerce. Amazon sales top $10 billion, this rises to nearly $25 billion in 2009.
- 2007. Mobile. 295 million subscribers on 3G networks exist worldwide, popularizing music and video streaming. This still only reflects 9% of the total worldwide subscriber base.
- 2009. SEO. Google Instant launches for real-time search results.
- 2010. Email marketing. 90% of emails are SPAM. 90% of U.S. households have a cellphone.
- 2011. Google-palooza. Google Panda launches. Google Panda updates favor social sharing in algorithm. Launch of Google Plus. Google Plus and +1 integrate into search. DVRs in U.S. households top as more viewers skip commercials than ever before (42%). Phonebooks. San Francisco bans distribution of unsolicited Yellow Pages. Smartphones. 1 in 2 Americans owns a smartphone. Internet usage surpasses time spent watching television for younger demographics. Young people (13-24) spend 13. hours watching TV vs. 13.7 hours online. Inbound marketing. Inbound marketing costs 62% less than outbound marketing. 60% lowers cost per lead with inbound vs. outbound marketing.
- 2012. Social media. Social media and blogs = real customers and leads!
% of channel users who acquired a customer through that channel. Twitter - 41%, LinkedIn - 41%, Facebook - 44%, company blog - 46%. Marketers plan to increase their social media budget by 635. In 2012, the audience of Internet users in the U.S. will expand by 3.1% to 239 million, representing 75.6% of the total population. In other words, more than 3/4 of the total population of the U.S. will be online in 2012. Facebook will reach 143.4 million U.S. users in 2012 up 8.2% from 132.5 million in 2011. About 2/3 of web users will use social networks in 2012.
More than 90% of social network users will be on Facebook in 2012. Mobile Internet users will reach 113.9 million in 2012 up 17.1%, from 97.3 million in 2011. Smartphone users will reach 106.7 million in 2012 up 18.1% from 2011, 94% of smartphone users will be mobile Internet users. All mobile phone users will reach 242.6 million in 2012, up 2.3% from 2011. Mobile shoppers will reach 72.8 million in 2012. Mobile buyers will reach 37.5 million in 2012. Smartphone shoppers will reach 68.6 million in 2012. Smartphone buyers will reach 36.4 million in 2012. Tablets users will reach 54.8 million in 2012, up 62.8%. In 2012 iPad users will reach 41.9 million, 76.4% of tablet users will be iPad users. Adult-aged eReader users will reach 45.6 million in 2012, up from 33.3 million in 2011.
Online video. Online video viewers will reach 169.3 million in 2012. 53.5% of the population & 70.8% of Internet users will watch online video in 2012. Mobile video viewers will reach 54.6 million in 2012. Smartphone video viewers will reach 51.2 million in 2012.
E-commerce. 88.1% of U.S. Internet users ages 14+ will browse or research products online in 2012. 83.9% of Internet researches will make at least one purchase via the web during 2012.
Online shoppers will reach 184.3 million, up 3.3% from 2011. Online buyers will reach 154.6 million, up 4.4% from 2011. As the marketing landscape continues to evolve, it will no doubt trend toward more and more interactive, two-way communication between consumer and brand. Companies that can provide value and engage customers in meaningful and exciting ways stand to reap tremendous rewards in the coming years.
Brought to you by: HubSpot
Infographic design by: BlueGlass