Biology: The Basic Principles Of Biology
Biological science: the study of life: 1) A: The Scientific Method: How scientists study biology: 1.1. Observe phenomena and formulate testable and falsifiable (in case they are wrong) hypotheses; 1.2. Test hypotheses,
collect data,and analyze statistically (if necessary); 2) B: What is life?: 2.1.Characteristics: metabolism, reproduction, growth, movement, responsiveness, complex organization.
- Concept that all organisms are related to each other by common ancestry: The unifying theme in biology: 1) A: Natural Selection. A mechanism for the occurrence of evolution: 1.1. Survival of those offspring best adapted
to the conditions in which they live; 1.1.1. Individuals produce sexually many more offspring than could possibly survive; 1.1.2. These offspring are not identical (in most situations), but show variations based on genetic
differences; 1.1.3. Essentially, those individuals with variations that allow them to survive (i.e., adaptations) to the age of reproduction can pass their genes on to the next generation; 1.1.4. Thus, nature is selecting offspring
and shaping the evolution of species; 1.2. Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace, 19th century biologists, formulated the concept of natural selection. Organism evolution: Kingdom plantae (Bryophyta, Angiosperms,
Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta, Chrysophyta, Chlorophyta, Pyrrophyta); Kingdom fungi (Mycota); Kingdom animalia (Arthropoda, Chordata, Annelida, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Platyhelminthes, Cnidaria, Porifera,
Nematoda); Kingdom protista (Ciliophora, Sarcodina, Mastigophora, Myxomycota (Universal ancestor - Domain bacteria, Domain archaea)); 2) B: Artificial Selection: Human selects traits in offspring (ex: pets, farm
Cytology: The study of cells. Cell theory
- All living things are composed of cells and come from cells: 1) A: Cell Size: Small to maximize surface area to volume ratio for regulating internal cell environment; 2) B: Cell (Plasma) Membrane: Composed of fluid-like
phospholipid bilayer, proteins, cholesterol and glycoproteins. Cell (Plasma) Membrane (Outside cell, Glycoprotein, Phospholipid, Cholesterol, Inside cell, Channel protein); 3) C: Cell Wall: Outside of cell membrane in
some organisms, composed of carbohydrate (e.g., cellulose or chitin) or carbohydrate derivative (e.g., peptidoglycan); 4) D: Cytoplasm: Material outside nucleus; 4.1. Site for metabolic activity; 4.2. Cytosol: Solutions with
dissolved substances such as glucose, Co2, O2, etc; 4.3. Organelles: Membrane-bound subunits of cells with specialized functions; 5) E: Cytoskeleton: Supportive and metabolic structure composed of microtubules,
microfilaments, and intermediate filaments. Cytoskeleton (Microtubule, Plasma membrane, Endoplasmic reticulum, Microfilaments and intermediate filaments, Mitochondria, Ribosomes).
Cytology: The study of cells. ?Prokaryotic cells
- Simpler cellular organization with no nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles (Flagella, Pili, Ribosomes, DNA, Capsule, Cell wall, Plasma membrane).
Cytology: The study of cells. Eukaryotic cells
- Complex cellular organization: 1) A: Membrane: Bound organelles including the following: 1.1. Nucleus: DNA/chromosomes, control cellular activities via genes; 1.2. Nucleolus: Located within nucleus, site for ribosome
synthesis; 1.3. Rough endoplasmic reticulum. With ribosomes, involved in protein synthesis; 1.4. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Without ribosomes, involved primarily in lipid synthesis; 1.5. Golgi apparatus: Packaging
center for molecules, carbohydrate digestion; 1.6. Lysosome: Contains hydrolytic enzymes for intracellular digestion; 1.7. Peroxisome: Involved in hydrogen peroxide synthesis and degradation; 1.8. Chloroplast: Site of
photosynthesis; 1.9. Chromoplast: Non-green pigments; 1.10. Leukoplast: Stores starch; 1.11. Mitochondrial: ATP production; 1.12. Vacuole: General storage and space-filling structure.
Cytology: The study of cells. Animal cell
- Animal cell (Mitochondria, Rough endoplasmic reticulum, Nucleus, Nuclear pores, Plasma membrane, Nucleolus, Nuclear envelope, Chromatin, Rough endoplasmic reticulum, Ribosomes, Smooth endoplasmic reticulum,
Cilia, Golgi apparatus, Microtubules, centrioles, Peroxisome, Lysosome, Microfilaments).
Cytology: The study of cells. Plant cell
- Plant cell (Plasma membrane, Peroxisome, Chloroplast, Mitochondria, Cytoplasm, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Nucleus, Nucleolus, Nuclear envelope, Cell wall, Smooth endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, Golgi
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